How to Make Compost: A Beginner's Guide to Soil Health and Nutrient Cycling
In this comprehensive beginner's guide, we will explore the wonderful world of composting, helping you understand the importance of soil health and nutrient recycling. Composting is a simple yet powerful practice that can transform your garden or farm into a thriving oasis of fertility. Whether you're a seasoned gardener or just starting out, this guide will provide you with the knowledge and tools necessary to make your own nutrient-rich compost.

1.) The Basics of Composting: Composting is the natural process of decomposing organic materials, such as kitchen scraps, yard waste, and plant residues, into a nutrient-rich soil amendment known as compost. It not only helps reduce waste but also improves soil structure, fertility, and overall health. To get started, follow these essential steps:

a.) Selecting the Right Composting Method: There are several composting methods to choose from, depending on your available space, time, and resources. Some popular options include:
i.) Traditional composting: Using a compost bin or heap to create compost over time.
ii.) Vermicomposting: Employing worms to speed up the decomposition process.
iii.) Bokashi composting: Fermenting organic waste with the help of microorganisms.

b.) Collecting Compostable Materials: To create a balanced compost pile, gather a mix of "green" and "brown" materials. Green materials include kitchen scraps (fruit and vegetable peels, coffee grounds), fresh grass clippings, and plant residues. Brown materials consist of dried leaves, straw, twigs, and shredded newspaper. Aim for a ratio of roughly 2 parts green to 1 part brown.

2.) Building and Maintaining Your Compost Pile: Now that you have your compostable materials ready, it's time to build your compost pile. Follow these steps to ensure optimal decomposition and nutrient recycling:

a.) Choosing the Right Location: Place your compost pile in a well-drained area that receives partial sunlight. This allows beneficial organisms, such as bacteria and fungi, to thrive and break down the organic matter effectively.

b.) Layering Your Compost: Start by creating a base layer of twigs or straw to provide airflow. Alternate between green and brown materials, ensuring each layer is moist but not waterlogged. Use a garden fork or compost aerator to mix the layers periodically to enhance decomposition.

c.) Monitoring and Maintenance: Regularly monitor your compost pile's moisture level, aiming for the consistency of a damp sponge. Turn the pile every few weeks to aerate it and speed up decomposition. Consider using a compost thermometer to ensure the temperature stays between 43-71°C (110-160°F) for optimal breakdown of organic matter.

3.) Troubleshooting Composting Challenges: While composting is a straightforward process, you may encounter some common challenges along the way. Let's address a few potential issues and provide solutions:

a.) Compost Too Dry or Smelly: If your compost pile is too dry, add water and mix thoroughly. For a smelly compost pile, it may indicate an imbalance between green and brown materials. Adjust the ratio, add more brown materials, and turn the pile to promote better aeration. Avoid adding meat, dairy, or oily substances, as they can cause unpleasant odours.

b.) Slow Decomposition: If your compost pile is taking longer to decompose, it may be due to a lack of moisture, insufficient aeration, or an improper balance of green and brown materials. Ensure the pile is adequately moist, turn it more frequently, and adjust the ratio of greens and browns. Adding a compost activator or accelerator, such as garden soil or finished compost, can also help speed up the process.

4.) Harvesting and Using Your Compost: After several months of decomposition, your compost will transform into dark, crumbly, and earthy-smelling humus. Here's how to harvest and utilise your nutrient-rich compost effectively:

a.) Harvesting Finished Compost: When the majority of your compost pile has turned into a dark, soil-like substance, it's time to harvest. Use a garden fork to remove the finished compost from the bottom of the pile, leaving any unfinished material for further decomposition. Sieve the harvested compost to remove any large chunks or debris.

b.) Applying Compost in the Garden: Compost can be used in various ways to improve soil health and promote plant growth:

i.) Soil amendment: Mix compost into existing garden beds or vegetable patches to enhance soil fertility, structure, and water-holding capacity.
ii.) Mulching: Spread a layer of compost around plants to suppress weeds, conserve moisture, and provide a slow-release source of nutrients.
iii.)Potting mix: Blend compost with potting soil for potted plants to improve nutrient availability and water retention.


5.) ReAg Tools: Your Partner in Sustainable Growing: At ReAg Tools, we understand the significance of composting and its role in promoting soil health and nutrient recycling. Our mission is to provide you with the highest quality tools and resources to support your sustainable gardening, market gardening or farming journey. Visit our website at to explore our range of composting supplies, from compost bins and aerators to gardening tools designed to make your composting experience efficient and enjoyable.

You've now embarked on a rewarding journey towards soil health and nutrient cycling through composting. By following the steps outlined in this beginner's guide, you'll be well on your way to creating your own nutrient-rich compost and enriching your garden or farm with organic goodness. Remember, composting is a continuous process, so keep experimenting, learning, and refining your composting techniques. Together, let's build a greener, healthier future for our plants, our planet, and ourselves.